22 Kasım 2011 Salı

Energy at Turkey

Energy sources

Total installed electricity capacity (2006): 40,565 MW
• Thermal: 68%
• Hydro-electric: 31%
• Other RES (Geothermal, Wind): 1%
68% of Turkey’s energy supply comes from conventional thermal sources.
Total Primary Energy Production in 2004: 25.2 MTEP.
Total Primary Energy Consumption in 2004: 87.8 MTEP:
• Oil: 38%.
• Coal: 27%.
• Natural Gas: 23%.
• Renewables: 12%.
In 2004, Turkey produced 143 billion kilowatt-hours (Bkwh) of electricity and consumed 133 Bkwh. In Turkey, electricity is mainly produced by thermal power plants, by consuming coal, lignite, natural gas, fuel-oil and geothermal energy, wind energy (recently) and hydropower plants (TEIAS web page, 2008). The electricity requirement, which is called gross demand, was reported as 174 000 GWh in 2006 by TEIAS (Turkish Electricity Transmission Co.)

Reliance

Turkey is a net importer of energy estimated at 73%. Growing energy demand has not been matched with production and in 2004 Turkey imported over 800 Bcf of natural gas in 2004 according to the EIA.
The imports/exports balance by energy source in 2007 was as follows (all units ktoe):
• Solid Fuel: 14939.0 / 0.0
• Oil and Products: 37581.5 /6168.7
• Natural Gas: 29650.8 / 25.4
• Electricity: 73.6 / 220.7

Extend network

About 99.9% of Turks have access to electricity.

Capacity concerns

The number one priority for the Turkish electricity sector is concern about security of supply. It is now a common perception that if there are no new investments, Turkey will suffer from electricity shortages in a few years. As well as the need for additional capacity there is also a specific shortage of peaking capacity.
The limits of Turkey’s domestic energy sources in light of its growing energy demand have resulted in dependency on energy imports, primarily of oil and gas. At present, around 30% of the total energy demand is being met by domestic resources, while the rest is being satisfied from a diversified portfolio of imports.
Turkey aims at fully utilizing its indigenous hard coal and lignite reserves, hydro and other renewable resources such as wind and solar energy to meet the demand growth in a sustainable manner. Integration of nuclear energy into the Turkish energy mix will also be one of the main tools in responding to the growing electricity demand while avoiding increasing dependence on imported fuels. Nuclear power plants corresponding to a total installed capacity of 5000 MW are expected to be commissioned after 2012.
Due to the current trend for sup-optimal hydrological conditions in the country, hydro-electric power generation is forecast to decrease by up to 20% in the near future.
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